Pavements bibliography

george scharf digging pavements for gas main

Primary sources:

George Scharf, sketches of laying gas mains in London streets, 1834: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1862-0614-304-

Scharf, sketch of children clearing snow, 1843: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1862-0614-79

The Architect magazine, e.g. https://www.google.co.uk/books/edition/The_Architect/z92t3Fl8pGkC?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=pavements%20streets%20pedestrians&pg=PA194&printsec=frontcover

TNA: MEPO – Met Police records – obstruction and nuisance

byelaws on chalking on pavements

Key texts:

  • David Rooney, ‘Keeping pedestrians in their place. Technologies of segregation in East London’, in Phillip Mackintosh, Richard Dennis and Deryck Holdsworth (eds.), Architectures of Hurry: Mobilities, Cities and Modernity (Routledge, 2020), pp. 120–36
  • David Rooney, Spaces of Congestion and Traffic: Politics and Technologies in Twentieth-Century London (Routledge, 2019)
  • Colin Pooley, ‘On the street in nineteenth-century London’, Urban History, 48:2 (2021), 211 – 226
  • special issue of Urban History , Volume 48 , Issue 2 , May 2021 , ‘Pedestrians and the City’

Articles/web sources:

Don Clow, ‘From Macadam to Asphalt: The Paving of the Streets of London in the Victorian Era. Part 1 — From Macadam To Stone Sett’, GLIAS, vol 8: http://www.glias.org.uk/journals/8-a.html

Will Jennings, ‘Beneath the City’, Landscape, 2020: https://willjennings.info/LANDSCAPE-JOURNAL-Essay-Beneath-the-city

Archaeology:

  • Erika Garilli and Felice Giuliani, ‘Stone pavement materials and construction methods in Europe and North America between the 19th and 20th century’, International Journal of Architectural Heritage, 13: 5 (2019),
  • Maxwell Lay, John Metcalf, Kieran Sharp, Paving Our Ways: A History of the World’s Roads and Pavements (London, CRC Press, 2020)

Urban improvement/greening/squares:

  • Henry W Lawrence, ‘The Greening of the Squares of London: Transformation of Urban Landscapes and Ideals’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 83: 1 (1993), 90-118
  • H. L. Malchow, ‘Public gardens and social action in late Victorian London’, Victorian Studies, 29 (1985), 97-124
  • F. H. Aalen, ‘Lord Meath, city improvement and social imperialism’, Planning Perspectives, 4 (1989), 127-152
  • Peter Clark, Jean-Luc Pinot and Richard Rodger, eds, The European City and Green Space: London, Stockholm, Helsinki and St Petersburg, 1850-2000 (Routledge, 2006)
  • Matti Hannikainen, The Greening of London, 1920-2000 (Routledge, 2016)

Public health/sanitation:

  • N. Goddard, ‘Sanitate Crescamus: Water Supply, Sewage Disposal and Environmental Values in a Victorian Suburb’, in Bill Luckin et all, Resources of the City: Contributions to an Environmental History of Modern Europe (Routledge, 2005)
  • Tom Crook, Governing Systems: Modernity and the Making of Public Health in England, 1830-1910 (Oakland CA, University of California Press, 2016);
  • Christopher Hamlin, ‘Middling in blumbledon: on the enormity of large sanitary improvements in four British towns, 1855-1885’, Victorian Studies, 32 (1988), 55-83;
  • Tom Crook, ‘Sanitary inspection and the public sphere in late Victorian and Edwardian Britain’, Social History, 32: 4 (2007), 369-93;
  • Michelle Allen, Cleansing the City: sanitary geographies in Victorian London (Athens OH, 2008);
  • Tina Young Choi, Christopher Hamlin and Mihelle Allen-Emerson, eds., Sanitary Reform in Victorian Britain, 6 vols (Pickering and Chatto, 2012)
  • James Hanley, Healthy Boundaries: Property, Law and Public Health in England and Wales, 1815-72 (University of Rochester Press, Rochester, 2016).
  • Tom Crook, Governing Risks in Modern Britain: Danger, Safety and Accidents, c. 1800–2000 (Springer, 2016)

Street life and the pedestrian:

  • Schmucki, B., ‘Against “the eviction of the pedestrian”: the Pedestrians’ Association and walking practices in urban Britain after World War II’, Radical History Review (2012), 113–38
  • James Winter, London’s Teeming Streets, 1830-1914 ()
  • Ishaque, Muhammed, and Noland, R., ‘Making roads safe for pedestrians or keeping them out of the way?: an historical perspective on pedestrian policies in Britain’, Journal of Transport History, 27 (2006), 115–37
  • Errázuriz, T., ‘When walking became serious: reshaping the role of pedestrians in Santiago, 1900–1931’, Journal of Transport History, 32 (2011), 39–65; 
  • Norton, P., ‘Street rivals: jaywalking and the invention of the motor age street’, Technology and Culture, 48 (2007), 331–59; 
  • Norton, P., ‘Urban mobility without wheels: a historiographical review of pedestrianism’, in Mom, G., Pirie, G. and Tissot, C. (eds.), Mobility in History: The State of the Art in the History of Transport, Traffic and Mobility (Neuchâtel, 2009), 111–15
  • Guldi, J., ‘The history of walking and the digital turn: stride and lounge in London, 1808–1851’, Journal of Modern History, 84 (2012), 116–44
  • Andersson, P., ‘“Bustling, crowding, and pushing”: pickpockets and the nineteenth-century street crowd’, Urban History, 41 (2014), 291–310
  • Penelope Corfield, ‘Walking the City Streets: The Urban Odyssey in Eighteenth-Century England’, Journal of Urban History, 16: 2 (1990)
  • Andersson, P., Street Life in Late Victorian London: The Constable and the Crowd (Basingstoke, 2013)
  • Stephen Jankiewicz, ‘A Dangerous Class: The Street Sellers of Nineteenth-Century London’, Journal of Social History, 46: 2 (Winter 2012), 391-415 
  • Mona Domosh, ‘Those “Gorgeous Incongruities”: Polite Politics and Public Space on the Streets of Nineteenth-Century New York City’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 88: 2 (1998), 209-26.
  • Jenny Birchall, ‘‘The Carnival Revels of Manchester’s Vagabonds’: Young Working‐class Women and Monkey Parades in the 1870s’, Women’s History Review, 15: 2 (2006)
  • Joe Moran, ‘Imagining the street in post-war Britain’, Urban History, 39: 1 (February 2012) 166 – 186
  • Nicholas Fyfe, ed., Images of the Street: Planning, Identity and Control in Public Space (1998)
  • Tim Hitchcock and Heather Shore, The Streets of London

Traffic and roads:

  • Peter Norton, Fighting Traffic: The Dawn of the Motor Age in the American City
  • Simon Gunn, ‘ People and the car: the expansion of automobility in urban Britain, c.1955–70′, Social History, 38: 2 (2013)
  • Joe Moran, ‘Crossing the Road in Britain, 1931-76’, Historical Journal, Volume 49 , Issue 2 , June 2006 , 477 – 496
  • Michael Law, ‘Speed and blood on the bypass: the new automobilities of inter-war London’, Urban History, Volume 39 , Issue 3 , August 2012 , 490 – 509
  • Bill Luckin and David Sheen, ‘Defining Early Modern Automobility: The Road Traffic Accident Crisis in Manchester, 1939–45’, Cultural and Social History, 6: 2 (2009)
  • Keith Laybourn and David Taylor, eds., The Battle for the Roads of Britain: Police, Motorists and the Law, c.1890s to 1970s (2015)
  • Michael John Law, ”Stopping to Dream’: The Beautification and Vandalism of London’s Interwar Arterial Roads’, London Journal, 35 (2010)
  • Michael John Law, ‘‘The car indispensable’: the hidden influence of the car in inter-war suburban London’, Journal of Historical Geography, Volume 38, Issue 4, October 2012, Pages 424-433
  • Simon Gunn, ‘RING ROAD: BIRMINGHAM AND THE COLLAPSE OF THE MOTOR CITY IDEAL IN 1970s BRITAIN’, Historical Journal, 61: 1 (March 2018), pp. 227 – 248

policing the streets:

  • Alvaro Sevilla-Buitrago, ‘Central Park against the streets: the enclosure of public space cultures in mid-nineteenth century New York’, Social and Cultural Geography, 15: 2 (2004)
  • Tim Hitchcock and Heather Shore, eds., The Streets of London from the Great Fire to the Great Stink (Rivers Oram, London, 2003)
  • R. Storch, ‘The policeman as domestic missionary: urban discipline and popular culture in northern England, 1850-1880’, Journal of Social History, 9: 4 (1976)
  • David Churchill, Crime Control and Everyday Life in the Victorian City: the Police and the Public (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2017)
  • Sarah Pickard, ed, Anti-social Behaviour in Britain: Victorian and Contemporary Perspectives (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014)
  • Tim Waterman, ‘Publicity and Propriety’, in Ed Wall and Tim Waterman, Landscape and Agency: critical essays (Routledge, 2017)

reclaiming the streets

Cowman, K., ‘Play streets: women, children and the problem of urban traffic, 1930–1970’, Social History, 42 (2017), 233–56; 

simple guide to using Edina Digimap Historic

edina digimap example
https://twitter.com/katrinanavickas/status/1497971970222305285
https://twitter.com/katrinanavickas/status/1497971970222305285
edina digimap historic download

https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/1497971970222305285.html

PDF link of the entire thread:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/16UXkEU9Z1aWz-cWtl4N-cUDMKa_EsnVB/view?usp=sharing

Edina Digimap is available to all subscribing libraries and universities. It’s most useful if you want to download already geo-referenced OS maps.

For just viewing old OS maps, maps.nls.uk is the best place to go.

save image as png

To learn more about how to use QGIS, I recommend following the Programming Historian tutorials – e.g. https://programminghistorian.org/en/lessons/qgis-layers

qgis

OSS lantern slides – some initial data on land ownership

Here are some initial findings from summary data on the landownership of the sites represented in the Open Spaces Society lantern slides: https://images.oss.org.uk/ at the Museum of English Rural Life. *

For more on the project and the slides, go to: https://historyofpublicspace.uk/my-oss-fellowship-at-merl-2021/exhibition-of-open-spaces-society-lantern-slides-held-at-the-merl/

Findings:

Dates: Many of these images were taken in the year that they were purchased on behalf of the public or the nation. I could only find this out once I researched the history of their acquisition. So these lantern slides are meant as much as a celebration of their acquisition and preservation as they are just recording the sites.

So for example, Norbury Park in Surrey was bought by Surrey County Council in 1931 (most likely as part of their ambition to establish a Green Belt). The pictures in the OSS collection are dated 1930. https://images.oss.org.uk/photos/norbury-park-surrey-1930/

Selsdon Woods in Surrey were purchased after a campaign by the National Trust in 1927. The images in the OSS are dated 1927: https://images.oss.org.uk/photos/selsdon-wood-surrey-1927/

selsdon woods 1927

Landownership:

NB I haven’t yet filtered the database to individual sites, so the counts are of percentage of total images, and e.g. there may be multiple images of the same site.

20% of the images are sites now owned by local councils or parish councils, or 23% if we include the streets. I need to do a bit more research on what percentage of the sites were under council ownership at the time that the photographs were taken, but it will be less than that.

14% of the images of sites are still in private ownership today.

8.5% of the images now are owned or managed by the National Trust.

The Church of England own 6.6% of the images depicted, though note this is skewed by the numbers of images of Canterbury Cathedral and the abbey at East Malling.

CL = City of London Corporation. Many of the metropolitan commons are included in the images, purchased or acquired after the 1893 Metropolitan Commons Act.

concentrations of landownership: this is obviously replicating the concentrations of the sites in the south East, and is skewed by the categorisation of ‘river’ for rivers. But it clearly shows the Corporation of London’s purchase of Surrey commons in the 1890s.

Concentrations of types of landownership:

The impact of the Commons Preservation Society (now OSS) and the wider movement to ‘save’ metropolitan commons by purchase is really evident in the map around London:

map of London showing council and conservator ownership
London, OSS images mapped by ownership

Chronology of acquisitions:

Chronology of acquisitions of the 294 images of sites that I can date as acquired by councils, National Trust or other public bodies:

*Caveats:

Please note that it is very difficult, without comprehensive land registration and access to the Land Registry database, to establish the landownership of all the sites.

There are also some categories that I have used because I am still trying to work out the landownership. For example, I have just for now categorised all images of rivers as simply ‘river’, and streets as ‘street’. There are many generic images where I have not been able to establish location or landownership.

Note also that I have generally classified the landownership according to who owns the sites today (2021). There are several images where the site was private at the time of photographing, but may have been purchased by e.g. the local council, later in the 20th century.

legislative definitions on what is and isn’t a public space have returned

Adam Wagner does his brilliant work again summarising the new covid emergency regulations on where masks have to be worn.

The Health Protection (Coronavirus, Wearing of Face Coverings) (England) Regulations 2021, passed 29 November 2021

It’s like deja vu again, but about masks rather than simply opening. The spatial ordering of the legislation yet again is fascinating. What is or is not a public space.

https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2021/1340/contents/made

stream of thoughts about animal pounds and car pounds

Architecture and Protest podcast by the Society of Architectural Historians GB

I’m talking on this new episode of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain, ‘Architecture and Protest’. I’m discussing Chartists’ use of spaces and buildings for protest and political meetings:

https://www.sahgb.org.uk/podcast/architecture-and-protest

https://pod.link/1562980101/episode/1f5b0b2e216325dd3bb357af05503efa

architectural history podcast links

Adam Elliott-Cooper is a researcher based at the University of Greenwich, who works on histories of racism and policing in Britain. His first monograph, Black Resistance to British Policing, was published by Manchester University Press in May 2021. He is also co-author of Empire’s Endgame: Racism and the British State (Pluto Press, 2021).

Hannah Awcock is a researcher based at the University of Edinburgh who is interested in the social, cultural, and historical geographies of resistance, publishing on subjects from the 1780 Gordon Riots to climate protests at COP26.

Morgan Trowland is a Civil Engineer and member of the protest group Extinction Rebellion.

Your hosts were Matthew Lloyd Roberts and Dr Jessica Kelly, and this project was devised with Neal Shasore