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East London primary sources
george scharf digging pavements for gas main

Pavements bibliography

Primary sources:

George Scharf, sketches of laying gas mains in London streets, 1834:

Scharf, sketch of children clearing snow, 1843:

The Architect magazine, e.g.

TNA: MEPO – Met Police records – obstruction and nuisance

Key texts:

  • David Rooney, ‘Keeping pedestrians in their place. Technologies of segregation in East London’, in Phillip Mackintosh, Richard Dennis and Deryck Holdsworth (eds.), Architectures of Hurry: Mobilities, Cities and Modernity (Routledge, 2020), pp. 120–36
  • David Rooney, Spaces of Congestion and Traffic: Politics and Technologies in Twentieth-Century London (Routledge, 2019)
  • Colin Pooley, ‘On the street in nineteenth-century London’, Urban History, 48:2 (2021), 211 – 226
  • special issue of Urban History , Volume 48 , Issue 2 , May 2021 , ‘Pedestrians and the City’

Articles/web sources:

Don Clow, ‘From Macadam to Asphalt: The Paving of the Streets of London in the Victorian Era. Part 1 — From Macadam To Stone Sett’, GLIAS, vol 8:

Will Jennings, ‘Beneath the City’, Landscape, 2020:


  • Erika Garilli and Felice Giuliani, ‘Stone pavement materials and construction methods in Europe and North America between the 19th and 20th century’, International Journal of Architectural Heritage, 13: 5 (2019), 742-768
  • Maxwell Lay, John Metcalf, Kieran Sharp, Paving Our Ways: A History of the World’s Roads and Pavements (London, CRC Press, 2020)
  • Tiina Männistӧ-Funk, ‘What Kerbstones Do: A Century of Street Space From the Perspective of One Material Actor’, Cultural History, 10: 1 (2021),

Urban improvement/greening/squares:

  • Henry W Lawrence, ‘The Greening of the Squares of London: Transformation of Urban Landscapes and Ideals’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 83: 1 (1993), 90-118
  • H. L. Malchow, ‘Public gardens and social action in late Victorian London’, Victorian Studies, 29 (1985), 97-124
  • F. H. Aalen, ‘Lord Meath, city improvement and social imperialism’, Planning Perspectives, 4 (1989), 127-152
  • Peter Clark, Jean-Luc Pinot and Richard Rodger, eds, The European City and Green Space: London, Stockholm, Helsinki and St Petersburg, 1850-2000 (Routledge, 2006)
  • Matti Hannikainen, The Greening of London, 1920-2000 (Routledge, 2016)

Public health/sanitation:

  • N. Goddard, ‘Sanitate Crescamus: Water Supply, Sewage Disposal and Environmental Values in a Victorian Suburb’, in Bill Luckin et all, Resources of the City: Contributions to an Environmental History of Modern Europe (Routledge, 2005)
  • Tom Crook, Governing Systems: Modernity and the Making of Public Health in England, 1830-1910 (Oakland CA, University of California Press, 2016);
  • Christopher Hamlin, ‘Middling in blumbledon: on the enormity of large sanitary improvements in four British towns, 1855-1885’, Victorian Studies, 32 (1988), 55-83;
  • Tom Crook, ‘Sanitary inspection and the public sphere in late Victorian and Edwardian Britain’, Social History, 32: 4 (2007), 369-93;
  • Michelle Allen, Cleansing the City: sanitary geographies in Victorian London (Athens OH, 2008);
  • Tina Young Choi, Christopher Hamlin and Mihelle Allen-Emerson, eds., Sanitary Reform in Victorian Britain, 6 vols (Pickering and Chatto, 2012)
  • James Hanley, Healthy Boundaries: Property, Law and Public Health in England and Wales, 1815-72 (University of Rochester Press, Rochester, 2016).
  • Tom Crook, Governing Risks in Modern Britain: Danger, Safety and Accidents, c. 1800–2000 (Springer, 2016)

Street life and the pedestrian:

  • Schmucki, B., ‘Against “the eviction of the pedestrian”: the Pedestrians’ Association and walking practices in urban Britain after World War II’, Radical History Review (2012), 113–38
  • James Winter, London’s Teeming Streets, 1830-1914 ()
  • Ishaque, Muhammed, and Noland, R., ‘Making roads safe for pedestrians or keeping them out of the way?: an historical perspective on pedestrian policies in Britain’, Journal of Transport History, 27 (2006), 115–37
  • Errázuriz, T., ‘When walking became serious: reshaping the role of pedestrians in Santiago, 1900–1931’, Journal of Transport History, 32 (2011), 39–65; 
  • Norton, P., ‘Street rivals: jaywalking and the invention of the motor age street’, Technology and Culture, 48 (2007), 331–59; 
  • Norton, P., ‘Urban mobility without wheels: a historiographical review of pedestrianism’, in Mom, G., Pirie, G. and Tissot, C. (eds.), Mobility in History: The State of the Art in the History of Transport, Traffic and Mobility (Neuchâtel, 2009), 111–15
  • Guldi, J., ‘The history of walking and the digital turn: stride and lounge in London, 1808–1851’, Journal of Modern History, 84 (2012), 116–44
  • Andersson, P., ‘“Bustling, crowding, and pushing”: pickpockets and the nineteenth-century street crowd’, Urban History, 41 (2014), 291–310
  • Penelope Corfield, ‘Walking the City Streets: The Urban Odyssey in Eighteenth-Century England’, Journal of Urban History, 16: 2 (1990)
  • Andersson, P., Street Life in Late Victorian London: The Constable and the Crowd (Basingstoke, 2013)
  • Stephen Jankiewicz, ‘A Dangerous Class: The Street Sellers of Nineteenth-Century London’, Journal of Social History, 46: 2 (Winter 2012), 391-415 
  • Mona Domosh, ‘Those “Gorgeous Incongruities”: Polite Politics and Public Space on the Streets of Nineteenth-Century New York City’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 88: 2 (1998), 209-26.
  • Jenny Birchall, ‘‘The Carnival Revels of Manchester’s Vagabonds’: Young Working‐class Women and Monkey Parades in the 1870s’, Women’s History Review, 15: 2 (2006)
  • Joe Moran, ‘Imagining the street in post-war Britain’, Urban History, 39: 1 (February 2012) 166 – 186
  • Nicholas Fyfe, ed., Images of the Street: Planning, Identity and Control in Public Space (1998)
  • Tim Hitchcock and Heather Shore, The Streets of London

Gendered streets and social control:

  • A. Croll, ‘Street Disorder, Surveillance, and Shame: Regulating Behaviour in the Public Spaces of the Late Victorian British Town’, Social History, 24 (1999), 250-68;
  • J. Walkowitz, City of Dreadful Delight: Narratives of Sexual Danger in Late Victorian London (Chicago, IL, 1992), pp. 41-80;
  • D. Nord, Walking the Victorian Streets: Women, Representation and the City (Ithaca, N.Y., 1995);
  • Robert Storch, ‘The Policeman as Domestic Missionary: Urban Discipline and Popular culture in Northern England, 1850-1880’, Journal of Social History, 9: 4 (1976), 481-509
  • Laura Harrison, ‘The Streets have been watched regularly’: The York Penitentiary Society, Young Working-Class Women and the regulation of Behaviour in the Public Spaces of York, c1845-1919′, Women’s History Review, 28: 3 (2019), 457-478
  • Tony Henderson, Disorderly Women in 18th Century London: Prostitution and Control in the Metropolis, 1730-1830 (1999)
  • Jane Rendall, ‘Displaying Sexuality: Gendered Identities and the Early 19th Century Street’, in N. Fyfe, ed, Images of the Street: Planning, Identity and Control in Public Space (London, 1998), pp. 75-91

Traffic and roads:

  • Peter Norton, Fighting Traffic: The Dawn of the Motor Age in the American City
  • Simon Gunn, ‘ People and the car: the expansion of automobility in urban Britain, c.1955–70′, Social History, 38: 2 (2013)
  • Joe Moran, ‘Crossing the Road in Britain, 1931-76’, Historical Journal, Volume 49 , Issue 2 , June 2006 , 477 – 496
  • Michael Law, ‘Speed and blood on the bypass: the new automobilities of inter-war London’, Urban History, Volume 39 , Issue 3 , August 2012 , 490 – 509
  • Bill Luckin and David Sheen, ‘Defining Early Modern Automobility: The Road Traffic Accident Crisis in Manchester, 1939–45’, Cultural and Social History, 6: 2 (2009)
  • Keith Laybourn and David Taylor, eds., The Battle for the Roads of Britain: Police, Motorists and the Law, c.1890s to 1970s (2015)
  • Michael John Law, ”Stopping to Dream’: The Beautification and Vandalism of London’s Interwar Arterial Roads’, London Journal, 35 (2010)
  • Michael John Law, ‘‘The car indispensable’: the hidden influence of the car in inter-war suburban London’, Journal of Historical Geography, Volume 38, Issue 4, October 2012, Pages 424-433
  • Simon Gunn, ‘RING ROAD: BIRMINGHAM AND THE COLLAPSE OF THE MOTOR CITY IDEAL IN 1970s BRITAIN’, Historical Journal, 61: 1 (March 2018), pp. 227 – 248

policing the streets:

  • Alvaro Sevilla-Buitrago, ‘Central Park against the streets: the enclosure of public space cultures in mid-nineteenth century New York’, Social and Cultural Geography, 15: 2 (2004)
  • Tim Hitchcock and Heather Shore, eds., The Streets of London from the Great Fire to the Great Stink (Rivers Oram, London, 2003)
  • R. Storch, ‘The policeman as domestic missionary: urban discipline and popular culture in northern England, 1850-1880’, Journal of Social History, 9: 4 (1976)
  • David Churchill, Crime Control and Everyday Life in the Victorian City: the Police and the Public (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2017)
  • Sarah Pickard, ed, Anti-social Behaviour in Britain: Victorian and Contemporary Perspectives (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014)
  • Tim Waterman, ‘Publicity and Propriety’, in Ed Wall and Tim Waterman, Landscape and Agency: critical essays (Routledge, 2017)

reclaiming the streets

Cowman, K., ‘Play streets: women, children and the problem of urban traffic, 1930–1970’, Social History, 42 (2017), 233–56; 

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