Open Spaces Society lantern slides project update 5

southern england map

I’ve now categorised and geo-located the majority of the c.1000 lantern slides in the Open Spaces Society collection at MERL.

NB not all the slides are represented on this map because some can’t be geo-located

Here are some statistics:

Some headlines:

  • Urban commons and rivers are the two most common types of landscape represented in the images, at 137 ( 13.8%) and 135 (13.6%) of the total.
  • Downland 65 (6.5%) and buildings 61 (6.1%) were the next common type.
  • Surrey was by far the most common county location – 255 images (30%)
  • London, Buckinghamshire and Kent were the next common counties.

What’s surprised me:

  1. Castles: There is a large proportion of pictures of castles and other ancient ruins/old buildings among the slides. As a society mainly concerned with footpaths and open spaces, one would expect that buildings wouldn’t be a main focus of their campaigns. I would have thought they would have left campaigning about ancient buildings to the National Trust and the Society for the Preservation of Ancient Buildings (founded by William Morris in 1877).
  2. Churches: Ditto, the same with churches. There are many pictures of churches, abbeys and cathedrals. Some of the small churches reflect the general theme of an idyllic unchanging village life, but there are also many images of statues and monuments in cathedral interiors.
  3. Geographies: The focus on the south east of England is not surprising, given the Commons Open Spaces and Footpath Preservation Society’s origins, but I was surprised that there were very few photos of the Lake District. There are none of Dartmoor. There are only a few in the Peak District. The Midlands is very sparsely represented.

‘The problem with the preservationists’ – talk for the Changing Landscapes network symposium

pennine way zoom

You can watch my short paper on the history of preservationist movements, access, amenity and the Industrial Pennines, for the University of Reading Changing Landscapes AHRC network symposium, 30 March 2021.

Link on their webpage, with some of the other talks, including Corinne Fowler on her work on Green Unpleasant Land, and Paul Readman on footpaths:

Direct link to file:

links on the Policing, Crime, Sentencing and Courts bill, 2021, parts 3 and 4, ‘unauthorised encampments’ and the new statutory offence of public nuisance

guy shrubsole sheffield posters (with PDF report)

clauses 54 to 60
unauthorised encampments
serious annoyance subject to 10 years in prison

government response to consultation:

measures on encampments



David Mead for the LSE blog:

Winter Hill 1896 mass trespass commemoration

winter hill stone

On 12 March 2021, I took part in an excellent discussion about the Winter Hill mass trespass near Bolton in 1896.

Local historian Paul Salverson, land reform campaigners Guy Shrubsole and Nick Hayes, and actor Maxine Peake spoke, alongside me. We were chaired by Bolton FM’s Keith Harris. It was a great evening with a large number of local people participating.

guy shrubsole sheffield posters
Guy Shrubsole, photo of posters in Sheffield protesting against the criminalisation of trespass in the Policing, Crime, Sentencing and Courts Bill 2021

Watch the event here:

report on the event in the Bolton News:

Write up on this Victorian Bolton blog:

The organisers of ‘Winter Hill 125’ are hoping to hold a commemorative walk in September this year.

See my earlier blogpost:

Open Spaces Society Fellowship update 4: themes

map of surrey

The Open Spaces Society have now uploaded their lantern slides images to their website:

You can purchase hi-resolution copies of the images from their website.

I’m still working my way through them all, classifying them and geo-locating them. The images are collated in themes, presumably in different boxes that were taken along to illustrate different talks and campaigns.

There is a whole ‘box’ for example on the Pilgrim’s Way in Hampshire.


I will be doing the stats on which places are represented in the collection as soon as I’ve finished geo-locating everything, but it seems that the 1000 or so slides focus mainly on southern England, and are often records of places just after they had been preserved or bought by the National Trust and other bodies for the benefit of the public – e.g. Kenwood and Hampstead Heath figure highly. There are hardly any slides from northern England or Wales. The focus is also on large areas, and long-distance footpaths.

These are the main themes I am going to explore:

a) rivers and waterways – riparian access issues

There is a whole section of images of rivers and waterways, in connection with various campaigns to open up towpaths and access to embankments etc. Riparian access is still an issue today. 

google street view, embankment
people looking at the Thames embankment
F18. River Thames.

b) Woods and forests

There are many slides showing woods, and particularly individual trees and broad-leaved deciduous. This derives from contemporary concerns about the impact of new plantations of conifers and sylviculture, both by 19th century estates and by the 1919 Forestry Commission. 

One could refer to the historic symbolism and uses of the ‘old oaks’ (for perambulations, boundaries, etc)

Burnham Beeches is a large section of the collection, and I have been in contact with a conservator from the City of London about the trees. 

Burnham beeches
E10. Burnham Beeches.

The impact of the 1987 great storm on the trees that are pictured in the collection would be an interesting side-project. 

c) trespass and access campaigns

There is one ‘box’ of lantern slides showing a of the OSS’s campaigns. These include a few images like this:  

demonstration sunnyside Bradford 1930
J51 demonstration, Sunnyside, Bradford, 1930

I’ll write a future blog post about the Sunnyside Bradford trespass campaign in 1930.

There is another slide showing the society removing obstructions at Ribchester, Lancashire, 1930, but very little about this, so this is something I will look into more. If anyone has any information about this, let me know.

And more individual actions such as ‘removing an obstruction, Otterburn, Northumberland, February 1936’. Also actions against farmers ploughing up of footpaths, e.g. between Banstead and Woodmansterne, Surrey.

 map of Banstead, 1914
Ordnance Survey, 6 inch to mile, Surrey, 1914:

d) Rural modernism and infrastructure

The changing landscape of roads, petrol stations, telegraph poles and power lines. 

Ewell was the first public petrol station: 

petrol station, Surrey
B105, Ewell, Surrey

My Rural Modernism network has been working on these themes, so there is much material on the impact of energy and transport infrastructure on landscapes, and the role of preservationist campaigns in e.g. public enquiries. 

Militarisation and requisitioning of landscapes during and after World War I is also a related theme. See the excellent studies by Marianna Dudley on this topic for the post WWII period.

Watch me talking with Bill Bailey on BBC 1’s The One Show, 1 March 2021

ramblers map

I was interviewed by Bill Bailey as part of a feature on BBC1 The One Show about the Ramblers’ Association campaign ‘Don’t Lose Your Way’. We were filming on footpaths near the Crooked Chimney, Lemsford, Hertfordshire.

The Ramblers are seeking to record and save lost footpaths in England and Wales before 2026. Jack Cornish of the Ramblers is also interviewed on the programme about the campaign.

lost pathways advert for One Tribe TV

Available now on iplayer for the next couple of weeks. From 15 minutes in:

me and bill bailey
me and Bill Bailey on a bridleway in Lemsford, Hertfordshire, January 2021

help identify locations of the OSS lantern slides

I’m trying to find the locations of the Open Spaces Society lantern slides at MERL. Can you help with the more tricky images? They are labelled very generally, or just show a tree or a field. Comment below with suggestions.

Information on the Roman Road south of Croydon by Pengeology:

Croydon Council’s archaeological survey:

Open Spaces Society lantern slides locations update 3: the Wandle river, Surrey

The closest locations of the OSS lantern slides to where I live are Waddon Ponds and the ones marked ‘Wandle Mill’. The images are a bit vague, so I am still working out exactly from where they were taken.

Waddon Ponds, 22 November 2020
wandle 1896
OS Surrey XIV.SW 6 inch to mile, 1898

Wandle Mill was the manorial corn mill. Looking on the OS map, a large corn mill, with watercress beds, alongside the river Wandle just downstream from Waddon Ponds. It no longer exists but is the site of an industrial estate, including a pomo multi-storey carpark full of cars stored by a second hand car dealer, and various small workshops.

Wandle, by Wandle Mill industrial estate, 14 February 2021

A court case was pursued in 1854 by the owner of Wandle Mill, about the rights to use and divert the water to power the mill. The 1849 Public Health Act had enabled the local Board of Health to dig a well as part of the major improvements in sanitary and water provision for Croydon. Indeed, Croydon became known as the first town to implement a comprehensive sewage system and water supply under the powers.

See this analysis of the Croydon sewage improvements by Nicholas Cambridge:

Also the parliamentary report on the Board of Health improvements:

Wandle Stream, by Waddon Mill industrial estate, 14 February 2021
wandle mill
Wandle by Wandle Mill industrial estate, 14 Feb 2021

The river was diverted at the end of the 19th century, creating watercress beds, and later allotments. The corn mill closed in 1928.

From a Croydon council leaflet:

“In 1910 records show that Waddon Ponds belonged to two estates, Waddon Court, which was owned by Mr Crowley, and Waddon Lodge which was owned by Miss Mary Waterall. When the two owners died the Corporation bought part of both estates in 1928 following a vigorous campaign by Mr Pescott Row an author of books about the beauties of England. To commemorate the efforts of Row another local author H.M. Tomlinson donated a sundial to the park. The rest of both the estates was sold to developers and new houses were built in Waddon Court Road, Lodge Avenue, Limes Avenue and Wandle Side.”

The mansion house is Waddon Court. It is on the 1914 map but gone by the 1936 map.

waddon court map
OS Surrey 6 inch to mile, 1914
OS 6 inch Surrey XIV.SW 1936,

The Ridgeway and other streets were built on the new streets in the 1930s:

One view that hasn’t changed much since the lantern slide is this one of the cottages and snuff mill by the Wandle as we cross into Beddington.

Beddington cottages and snuff mill, 14 February 2021

History of the Snuff Mill:

John Hassell in 1817 described what had previously been a pleasant walk along the Wandle: